For this assignment, each student will access the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) website ( On the homepage, select the “Regions and Countries” tab on the left, followed by your assigned region or country at the bottom. Select the “Stories from the Field” tab on the left and select an article that relates to population and touches upon one of the following topics:

-medical care and technology (as it relates to life expectancy)
-food production and agriculture
-role and rights of women
-protecting the environment

Each student is required to summarize the key points of the article (point form is acceptable) in about 100 words. In addition, you must also include a few sentences about how the issue affects populations (based on what we discussed in class). Your summary is due by Wednesday, September 29th.

Please post your country or region, article title, name and summary on this page.
Please sign up for a region or country below.
Please note that the student that selects Sudan is the only one that can do the article entitled "Sharing the Waters of Life"
Regions and Countries
Caribbean Regional Program
Sarah Drury
Mali-Improving Maternal and Child Health
Mali-Improving Basic Education
Sarah Dunn
Mali-Increasing Food Security

Sudan- Sharing the Waters of Life
by Chris
CIDA Article Summary:
The Nile River is the longest river in the world and is an essential resource for the 160 million people that live around and utilize it. However, it is also being polluted by bacteria and droughts threaten the surrounding farms and villages. Since the 6825km long life source passes through 10 countries (Burundi, Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, The Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt) there needs to be a way for the Nile to be preserved. The Nile Basin Initiative is a program, created in 1999 led by Africans with many other supporting countries such as Canada, that aims to share and care for the Nile river. Currently they are working on issues such as water quality, energy use, agriculture, education and land conservation.

This situation affects populations in Canada and also the populations in Africa. The Nile Basin Initiative is a program that calls for all of those that use the Nile to a responsibility. Also, since the Nile serves as the main fresh water source for many people, many people need to depend on the conservation of this resource and the whole population needs to take an active approach in keeping it for future generations. This means proper irrigation and being vigilant about keeping pesticides and other harmful chemicals out of the water system. The initiative also creates awareness for Canadians because Canada is home to some of the biggest fresh water sources in the world. Therefore, Canadians need to be aware of how they export and manage their water supply.

Haiti - Viva Haiti! (The greening of Bel Air)by: Joanne Kim
A new campaign was started called “Bel Air Green”, which aimed to change Viva Rio into a safer area. This will be done through more than 3000 newly planted trees, in order to change people’s opinion of the community. Although there was violence present in the community, after encouraging citizens to disarm and start self-policing, there has been a 66% drop in violent deaths. They also tackled issues for women by hiring a nurse to each rainwater station to provide first aid to anyone in need, especially women and children, victims of family violence. This project is parallel to Canada’s ideas towards Haiti’s development.
This issue affects populations because through improving the environment, it changes the image of the community. With more nurses ready to help any hurt individuals, it can help maintain the population and limit the deaths. As citizens follow the encouragements of disarming and self-policing, this begins to limit the violence to a certain extent. Also, with more trees, there’s more oxygen in the air, and more resources to improve the community, as well as good scenery. When the environment improves, the atmosphere of the town will also improve, which will help the lifestyle of the citizens.

Bolivia – Lifted from Poverty by Oregano

CIDA article summary:

This article concentrates on an initiative put in place by the Canadian International Development Agency along with other organizations, which encourages farmers to grow new, different crops in an effort to reduce the poverty rate in Bolivia. This program was also aided by two other organizations: SOCODEVI a Canadian organization and AGROCENTRAL a local Bolivian farming association. It is stated that in Bolivia two out of three people live below the poverty line.

The article describes in detail the economic situation of a local farmer Flavio Duran living near the village of Tomina. His family, along with millions of other Bolivians, survives by means of farming, but his farm’s products never really managed to be sold. Until CIDA encouraged Flavio, as well as other poor farmers of the region to begin cultivating oregano. This crop was of particular interest to them because it could be harvested 3 times a year in Flavio’s region. CIDA has helped almost 1000 farmers commence oregano plantations and this has increased most of their earnings giving each family access to better food, clothing and an education. Thanks to Canadian funding CIDA has also invested their time in the research of other possible crops for poor communities in South America.

Federico Palacios

Senegal - A Ray of Hope for Education in Senegalby: Mariam Naguib
In the 1990's, Senegal had reached a point where it's illiteracy had reached a flabbergasting 73%, and an even higher number for the rare few girls who had the chance to attend school. The Senegal Government, suddenly made education his priority by spending just under 40% of the yearly budget on it. They found that the reason people weren't getting access to schools was because of a lack of materials (including teachers), and a system that was state-run. They turned the system around by making schools community run, hiring local teachers, focusing on those who have never attended school, as well as too encourage the adult population, they released five new newspapers. The results were almost immediate. In five years, the illiteracy has dropped ten percent for both boys and girls, and the education budget continues to grow. This issue affects population because through the improvement of education, people and specifically girls are being exposed to things that exist beyond their hometown, to which they would live their whole lives without knowing. They will learn to read and write, making it possible to get a better job and become more knowledgeable. And as one says: knowledge is power. With the implementation of education, the cycle of poverty can be broken, developing this nation into an post industrialized country, and education is just the first step. In the end, this affects the population, because as in the demographic transition model, analyzed by Warren Thompson: when a country reaches the postindustrial stage, their population stabilizes and displays a zero growth pattern. Which could end up being the case for Senegal, if the country continues to shift in this direction.

Peru- Improving Basic Education in Northern Peru

By: Leila Meema-Coleman

In 2003, there were only 7% if grade three students with good reading comprehension, that number has now increased to 67% thanks to an education project created by the Canadian International Development Agency. They offered over 7.5 million dollars in funding for educational staff support and training as well of the building of new infrastructures such as preschools and libraries. The curriculum also received a makeover to make the topics discussed more pertinent to life in Peru and real issues facing the communities. This initiative caused the number of students entering primary school at the proper age to multiply by 5 and improved test scores at all participating schools. The project as a whole was a great success and is looking to be continued throughout the various other regions of Peru.

The program will affect the population of Peru for many reasons but primarily because it is turning out a more educated and aware youth demographic. A girl who is educated is more likely to understand that her primary role does not have to be to procreate and look after her babies (as are many, which is one the causes of our increasing population) but she can work and earn money for herself. The education of children also means that during the day they are at school and not working on farms or getting into trouble. This keeps them safe for x number more years as opposed to the six year olds not in school who die from a lack of supervision by overworked parents. Lastly as part of the initiative parents are coming into classrooms to teach real life skills such as how to cultivate rice. If children are learning these skills in schools that could help with food situations and increase the populations numbers that a community is able to support.

Ethiopia: Full Bellies, Ready to Learn

Sarah Drury

In the northern Ethiopian province Tigray, food is scarce due to droughts. As an initiative to increase attendance, Abrha We Atsbaha school is offering students with a carbohydrate and protein rich meal every day, provided by the World Food Programme. Since students who have consumed a nutritious meal are more likely to concentrate in class, the school is taking advantage of this opportunity to teach the children necessary skills that will be useful for the rest of their lives. HIV/AIDS education is emphasized since 15 to 20% of the country’s population is HIV positive.

In today’s world, a country’s prosperity is largely dependent on its quality of education. In developing countries such as Ethiopia, education may not be a top priority for parents of school-age children because helping with house work, water fetching and other chores is more important to their survival. In an effort to overcome the poverty cycle and to internally improve the conditions of Ethiopians’ lives, the school feeding initiative is slowly implementing positive change in the lives of people who are victims of drought areas by educating the children.

Pakistan: Citizens' Campaign for Women's Representation in Local Pakistani Government
Scott M.xxxxxxxxxxIn previous Pakistani elections, tens of thousands of women ran for local government under new legislation that reserved 33 percent of the seats for them. Many of these women were illiterate, poor, and had no experience in politics. The Government of Canada funded a $2-million project to establish resource centres to teach the new politicians important skills such as managing budgets, using the legal process, improving social services, contributing to equality between women, and men and building awareness about women's rights. Many women councillors have applied their new knowledge to lobby for and obtain greater funding for water, sanitation, health, and education programs in their communities. The centres were originally intended to assist the councillors; however, half of the visitors are women looking for help with personal problems, often associated with family breakdown or violence.xxxxxxxxxxThe skills these centres are teaching women are essential for population sustainability. The abilities taught allowed the women councillors to lobby for water, sanitation, and health. Water is essential to life and thus is a basic requirement to sustaining a population. Sanitation and health help prevent diseases that can affect the entire population. Therefore, centres like this that educate these women increase the potential carrying capacity of humans in these communities.

Mali – Improving Food Security

Crops Find Their Place in the Sun

Courtney C.

  • CIDA funds an network that many women take part of to sell dried produce to increase food supply and contribute to its economy
  • Dried goods was a new idea that others needed to be aware of (initially just a tool used for survival; food that were on the verge spoiling or ripened too fast)
  • Teachers communicated the idea and the benefits to others in different ways (Ex. Skits)
  • Banks were assured by the idea and made microcredit available to women
  • Convinced the public that it tasted good and therefore should be added into their daily diet
  • Dried goods last 6-7 months and a network of small stores/markets set up, thus availability is greater
  • many women who benefited from the program and are no longer timid and isolated from men

This network of women producing dried produce helps build a more stable food revenue especially if unpredictable weather damages some of the yield. With more food available, there may be an increase in population. However, this project has also taught women to assert themselves and think more about being a part of the economy and a leader than merely staying at home. This may eventually lead to a decrease in birth rates, thus a decrease in population.

Honduras: Guayape Valley Agricultural Development Project

Eva Klimova

In late October 1998, Hurricane Mitch destroyed many parts of Central America. Honduras, capital of Tegucigalpa, is a country that solely depends on their agriculture, but was unfortunately left in ruins when the hurricane hit. Many farmers lost years of hard work, being left with absolutely nothing. Fortunately, the Guayape Valley Development project has been providing support since 1992 towards the development of new and diversified crops, improved credit facilities, and better local, regional and international marketing in Honduras.

CIDA has been providing support that has been more focused on the creation of a more dynamic and productive economy. Unfortunately, money has become a major road block as quick diversification requires big investments that small-scale, poor farmers cannot afford. Banks are definitely not sympathetic towards small-scale farmers and as a result, do not give them loans, leaving many farmers without an investment for their crops. The Guayape project has been working on this road block by supporting credit unions and other financial institutions to help Honduras improve its economical and financial situation. The Guayape project has also introduced irrigation to the Honduras population as it allows farmers to diversify and improve their productions, allowing them to reach new markets that were once thought to have been unattainable. Irrigation has become a very important tool for the people of Honduras as it allows them to produce crops for longer periods of time.

The Guayape project has brought joy and hope to the people of Honduras in the past years as their help has allowed these hard working people to increase their production of crops and increase their markets, hence increasing their income and comfortability within their lifestyles. The farmers of Honduras have been overwhelmed with the success of their work that they finally have found a brighter future.

Industrial Pollution: Turning Things Around
Mimi Chen
In Vietnam, the citizens are working towards reducing pollution, because they are becoming more aware of the effects. The authorities in Vietnam are working with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) to reduce pollution. The country has been developing at a quick rate due to the industrial sector, which is ironic because the industrial sector accounts for majority of the pollution. Environmental experts were sent to paper recycling plants to inspect and offer advice, the advice was implemented almost immediately. The reduction in pollution can be credited to the cooperation between Canada and Vietnam, who have worked together from 1996 to 2006. During this time government authorities have been trained, and laboratories have been built for the Vietnam Provincial Environmental Governance project (2007-2013). Vietnam is working its way to reducing pollution, and thanks to the CIDA it is well on its way.
This issue affects population, because it addresses pollution and restoration ecology. Vietnam is working on reducing pollution, which was addressed in the two ways of dealing with global pollution. If the CIDA can work with other developing countries, helping them work on more efficient ways of manufacturing and reducing their pollution, global pollution could be greatly reduced. The CIDA can make sure that developing countries have a low-throughput economy instead of a high-throughput economy, this will greatly decrease the amount of pollution produced. The reduction of pollution will greatly benefit the Earth by sustaining the environment for future generations to enjoy.

A Bright Future Ahead - Reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality in Mali

The maternal mortality rate in Mali is one of the highest in the world. So, in 2003 a program was put into palce to help reduce maternal mortality rates and progress has been made! The program helped emphasize communication and transportation between emergency services to help bring mothers that are in need quickly and efficiently to where they can be helped. As of 2005 Caesarean section are free to women in Mali. This means that more women are surviving because more of them will have the surgery because it is free of charge. The staff now listen and have changed their attitudes in health care to better help the needy. Statistics show that before these changes were made and this program was put into place 1 in 7 women died from maternal mortality, and now it is down to 1 in 25. Canadians have been helping Malians for decades and the quality of maternal health care has improved by having an understanding of the causes of maternal mortality and finding approaches to improving the statistics. This article relates to populations because in class we talked about quality of life, birth and death rates. In this article death rates amoung young is an issue and CIDA has taken action to help people in poor conditions with medical care to decrease the infant mortality rate.

- Aleena Dipede

Learning at a Distance: Raising the Quality of Basic Education in Guyana

By Drew MacNeil

Article Summary:

Due to limited educational resources in Guyana, 72% of teachers are unqualified. Therefore, student achievement is low. The Canadian International Development Agency funded a training program (1350 have participated) with the goal of training teachers in areas of English, practical science, history, social science, geography, and mathematics. This education has given Guyanese people the prospect of having a better life because more opportunities will be available to them. Community members also have a greater desire for education; some members even voluntarily teach classes. More students are now graduating; Guyana is on track to achieve their primary education Millennium Development Goal.

How does this affect populations?

Education quality is a large contributor to industrialization. Education produces more jobs and more qualified graduates, thus exponentially increasing the potential workforce a nation has. Boosting Guyana’s education system will benefit their economy by accelerating their industrialization process (due to more workers and jobs). With industrialization comes more money, leading to wider application of science, technology, and medicine. Changes in population patterns will slowly arise: birth and death rates will begin to fall, followed by a rise in life expectancy. Eventually, Guyana’s economy would benefit, with a rise in GNP per capita. Improvement of education in the amelioration of a population.

Challenges of Success: Tanzania is Making a Smart Investment in Primary Education

Brittney West


Reintegrating Former Child Soldiers in Colombia
- Colombia has widespread violence and over 11,000 child soldiers who make up a quarter of irregular combatants.
- Violence in the community means higher cases of rape and demobilized youth.
- Many children can only dream of going to school and only those who successfully escape from their guerrilla group have a chance of rebuilding their lives.
- CIDA and IOM (International Organization for Migration) have been implementing programs throughout the country, namely in Antioquia, for ex-combatant youth.
- Through the reinsertion program, CROJ (Youth Referral and Opportunities Center) more than 300 youth, including over 70 women have received health care, support to finish their education and vocational training.
- The constant turmoil and violence uses up resources and makes it difficult for the economy to grow causing many to live in poverty
- The CROJ strives to reunify families and help ex-combatants find employment and learn to manage small businesses. They have also organized cultural and sports activities to unify the community and decrease violence.
- The project has established peace building, children’s rights and recruitment prevention in the school curriculum.
- This program has allowed youth to rebuild their lives.

How it relates to population:

The issues outlined in this article relate to population in many ways. The high cases of violence contribute to a high death rate and a higher death rate for those at a reproductive age. The lack of education would imply that the families tend to be larger yet violence would discourage this as it would separate families. Through the education programs youth are taught to lead less violent lives and thus helping to decrease the death rate of those at a reproductive age. By studying medicine and developing small businesses this stimulates the economy and thus decreasing mortality, especially among very young and old. With education and more working parents the birth rate will decrease and stabilize. Currently Colombia seems to be in the preindustrial stage of development which means that the birth and death rates are high and the population size is lower. With the development of these education programs it appears that Colombia may be heading into the transition stage sometime in the future.

Sangitha Mensingh

Fighting AIDS side by side


-A program was developed in Xai Xai located in the southern part of Mozambique called Lado-Lado, which assists people living with HIV/AIDS.
-After a consultation at a hospital or health clinic, the volunteers would provide a home-based care to the people with HIV/AIDS, with the assistance of a nurse, in order to support these people to improve their health
-There are approximately 76 volunteers in the organization providing this service to 85 people within the area, assisting with psychological counselling, teaching those in the family to care for their sick loved ones, as well as being able to see whether the person should go to the hospital in different circumstances
-The sad truth is, having this disease is a stigma, which means that many of the relatives and family members treat the patients as an outcast
-The program is one of the many projects that is CIDA-funded in order to assist Mozambique's health system as well as to achieve the Millenium Development Goals to reduce child and maternal mortality and reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS

This issue of AIDS has been an ongoing problem for many countries, especially Mozambique. There is still a great need for medical care and prevention for AIDS, due to the lack of knowledge as well as the lack of technology in order to control this problem. AIDS is transferrable through birth, and knowing that the birth rate in Mozambique is high, allows the organization to seek for immediate response as well as help as much as they can. Providing such services, like the ones that Lado-Lado initiate, gives many of the people living with AIDS a sense of hope, but most importantly a sense of knowledge, where this knowledge may be circulated among others. This problem has escalated due to the large population size, and through our knowledge of population density, the larger the population, the closer humans are to one another that this close proximation allows the disease to spread much faster. Thus by informing the people to use things like condom and birth control pills, as well as helping those who are living with aids, the population size may be more controlled as well as having a safe, and healthy population.


By: Tom Parr

On May 23, 2010 the Role 3 Multinational Medical Unit at Kandahar Air Field was closed down and all patients were moved to a modern NATO facility nearby. The Role 3 hospital has been providing intensive, life-saving care for allied troops, Afghan citizens, and Afghan troops for many years. It has been an important medical hub during war and was under Canadian control from 2005-2009. Role 3 treated thousands of people, saved many lives and boasted a high survival rate. The USA assumed control in 2009 to oversee the construction of a new Role 3 which is larger than the original. Even though Canada is not in control of the hospital anymore it still contributes a lot of resources and personnel to aid injured soldiers and civilians.

Role 3 hospital completes move to new quarters at KAF
By: Tom Parr

On May 23, 2010 the Role 3 Multinational Medical Unit at Kandahar Air Field was closed down and all patients were moved to a modern NATO facility nearby. The Role 3 hospital has been providing intensive, life-saving care for allied troops, Afghan citizens, and Afghan troops for many years. It has been an important medical hub during war and was under Canadian control from 2005-2009. Role 3 treated thousands of people, saved many lives and boasted a high survival rate. The USA assumed control in 2009 to oversee the construction of a new Role 3 which is larger than the original. Even though Canada is not in control of the hospital anymore it still contributes a lot of resources and personnel to aid injured soldiers and civilians.

The new building will positively effect the healthcare that we are able to provide to injured people in the war torn region of Kandahar. Hopefully, it will lower the morality rate by distributing vaccinations and medicines as well as saving the lives of those injured in combat. The increased size is very important because it was obviously necessary because of an influx of patients seeking medical attention. In conclusion, the new hospital will help lower the mortality rate, especially in the age-group of people who can reproduce (young men/women fighting), and the population of the region can grow faster.

By: Sarah Dunn

Textbooks are a necessary part of any education system, but especially in African nations such as Mali, where teaching resources are scare. Unfortunately, a textbook only lasts about 3 to 5 years, and the Mali government does not have the resources to supply the textbooks at this rate. In 1997, as a trial solution, CIDA funded the reissuance of 3 textbooks in the Djoliba collection. These books are used to teach French, which allowed many authors to rewrite their books. It also increased the support for Mali’s writers, illustrators and private publishers.

Most specifically, CIDA focused on supporting Mali’s private sector, thus supporting local ownership and future prospect rather than just a temporary solution. The small scale experiment was such a success that CIDA put over 23 million dollars towards increasing the size of the project (it funded more than 3 million textbooks). Future changes to sustain this production are being put in place by the Malian government, and being monitored by CIDA. The hope is that not only will this production bring hope to the Malian private sector, but the new high-quality textbooks can help education as well.

These changes affect Mali’s populations because education is a key factor in decreasing their birth rate. Currently, Mali is still a developing nation. This can be determined just by looking at their population pyramid. The base of the pyramid is very wide, and the numbers of individuals who make it to old age decreases as you move up the table. This shows patterns of negative growth; that Mali has a high birth rate, a high death rate, and a low life expectancy. By introducing education, we encourage a higher quality of life, where more children can go on to post-secondary education and careers rather than just having children. Education also helps people understand why things such as a high death rate may be linked to things like unclean water. By providing the material necessary for their education, CIDA is encouraging a better lifestyle for these people, and ultimately a more stable population pyramid.

Indonesia- From Canada with Love

Fiona D'Arcy

On Boxing Day of 2004 a tsunami devastated parts of Indonesia, destroying thousands of homes in the remote areas of Aceh and Nias. The Canadian Red Cross recognized the desperate situation of the people left without a place to live, and took on the challenge of building them new homes. Thanks to donations from Canadians and CIDA, forty six hundred earthquake-safe houses have now been constructed, with plans of providing homes for nearly six thousand families in the hardest hit regions of the country. Dozens of secluded villages that were left in a dire state after the earthquake and resulting tsunami have now been rebuilt with quality materials and made to feel like home again with the help of the Canadian Red Cross.

This issue affects populations as this project has given young families a place to live and raise children. This will allow the population to grow and the age structure will continue to prosper with growth as there is now the availability of a flourishing younger generation. On top of this, these homes will decrease the mortality rate for residents of these isolated villages as the risk of disease and other health concerns related to poor living conditions will be drastically minimized. These new homes can also withstand earthquakes of the same magnitude as the Boxing Day one, so in this way also the mortality rate may be potentially lowered in the case of future disasters. All and all, this plan has greatly aided the population dynamics of the regions of Aceh and Nias in Indonesia. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Region: Ghana

Article: Helping Children Live Longer Lives__

Name: Clinton D’Silva

Due to its hot and dry conditions Ghana is one of the poorest regions in the world. These horrible conditions result in food shortages all over Ghana. This has lead to malnutrition and the widespread of deadly diseases. The Canadian International Development Agency has deployed a health care project with a funding of $26 million to reduce the already high death rate of children under five. These interventions include: immunization, protection of transmission of HIV from mother to child, and protection from malaria. The results have been great: about 75% of children use mosquito nets, infants have received correct oral rehydration and the percent of women breastfeeding children has gone up to 86%. These results are because of the great nurses who are friendly and approachable, which has lead to a decrease in severe cases at the local health care centre. In all, UNICEF and Ghana Health services are working towards providing good healthcare for children.

This movement shows the future of the population dynamics of Ghana. Since healthcare is starting to improve for infants, the infant mortality rate will go down. This will start a drastic growth in population because of the booming population of young people. Improving healthcare also increases the life expectancy of the people in Ghana. This could be both a positive and a negative thing. The positive is longer life for people but the negative effect is that there are more people needed to feed thus creating greater food shortages. The doubling time shortens because of the greater amount of younger people compared to the older generation. Overall this initiative has a positive affect on Ghana’s population.